Types of Pacemakers

Types of Pacemakers Ankara

Pacemakers are advanced devices used to correct deficiencies in the electrical system of the heart so that the heart can function properly and pump enough blood. The type and degree of disorder in the electrical system of the heart is not the same in every person. While some people have a problem at the point where the electrical stimulus exits in the right atrium (sinoatrial node, or SA node), some people have a problem in transmitting the normally generated stimulus to the necessary points in the heart. In both cases, the heart rate slows and a pacemaker is required to correct the heart problem. The insertion purpose of each pacemaker is to complete the electrically deficient part of the heart and thus to reach a healthy working order of the heart. In some patients, the heart generates very little electrical stimulation, and in some people, electrical impulses are transmitted irregularly or incompletely. The type of pacemaker that should be preferred for each electrically present heart disease is different. There are different types of pacemakers produced specifically for different heart diseases. In the continuation of our article, we will give information about the types of pacemakers and their features. For more detailed information about the types and prices of pacemakers in Ankara, you can contact clinic Prof. Basri Amasyalı.

Why Pacemakers Are Inserted?

In a normal heart, the “sinus node”, known as the “pulse generator” or “signal generator”, or the “SA node” as medically expressed, is located in the right atrium of the heart and generates an average of 60 to 100 impulses per minute, which in turn increases our pulse rate. However, in some people, the sinus node cannot generate enough electrical stimulation. In this case, the heart slows down and cannot pump the blood it needs to the body. Palpitations, dizziness, tiredness, lightheadedness, and in severe cases even fainting can occur. The pacemaker ensures the healthy functioning of the heart by means of the electrical impulses it creates.

Pacemakers are also used to eliminate rhythm disorders in some patients. Especially in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia, ventricular flutter, ventricular fibrillation), devices with shock feature and described as “ICD” in medical language are used and these are also known as pacemakers. This issue will be addressed in the next part of our article.

What is the Structure of Pacemakers? , What are the Components of Pacemakers?

Pacemakers help the heart get the electrical stimulation it needs. It uses 1 generator and electrodes for this. Inside the generator, there is a power source that regulates the operation of the battery and produces electricity. Electrodes are special cables that provide power transfer between the pacemaker generator and the heart. These electrodes can be 1 or more than 1 depending on the type of pacemaker. The batteries in modern generators used today weigh about 12 – 16 grams and are made of lithium material. Electrodes, on the other hand, are cables with a thickness of 1-2 mm, covered with silicone material, which provide electrical transmission.

What are the Types of Pacemakers?

Pacemakers are roughly divided into temporary pacemakers and permanent pacemakers based on their length of stay in humans.

Temporary Pacemakers

Basically, they are battery types that we can keep on the patient for 10-14 days in order to treat the damages that develop in the electrical system of the heart due to temporary reasons. However, in patients who need urgent intervention, we can use temporary pacemakers as a transitional stage; since they can be applied in a short time in order to save time until the permanent pacemaker is implanted. Temporary pacemakers are relatively simple devices and there are not many varieties. Our main purpose here is to talk about the types of permanent pacemakers.

Permanent Pacemakers

It is used in the treatment of permanent problems related to the production or conduction of electrical impulses of the heart. They usually consist of one or two electrodes. Depending on the production model and year, they have a weight of approximately 10-30 grams and a volume of 5-6 cm. We can list the subtypes as follows:

  1. VVI pacemakers: It is a single-cable pacemaker. They are the simplest and relatively inexpensive batteries used only to stimulate the ventricle of the heart and are relatively simple compared to other pacemakers. For some patient groups, this type of pacemaker is sufficient to correct the deficiency. Here, the simplest pacemaker definition should not be understood as the worst quality pacemaker. The reason I say the simplest is that it is not too complicated. Do not mistakenly take any meaning from these words about the quality of the batteries here.
  2. DDD pacemakers: They are double-cable pacemakers. One cable stimulates the right atrium and the other stimulates the right ear. Many patients use this type of pacemaker.
  3. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD): Although they have similar features with permanent pacemakers, their main use is that they also have “electroshock” capabilities. As we know, patients with advanced heart failure are more likely to develop serious heart palpitations and rhythm disorders originating from the ventricle of the heart, which pose a life-threatening risk. Therefore, in the patients with heart failure, devices with the ability to deliver “electroshock” are used instead of simple pacemakers, rather than a specially produced battery. These devices are much heavier and larger in volume than batteries. Their prices are also about 5-6 times higher than batteries. They are devices that weigh approximately 60 – 90 grams, depending on the brand and model of production year. Just like plain pacemakers, ICDs have subtypes: single-chamber (VVI-ICD) and dual-chamber (DDD-ICD).
  4. 3-wire pacemakers or CRT: These are also called “biventricular” pacemakers in medical language. If they have an electroshock feature, they are called CRT-D. Here, the letter “D” is the initial letter of the defibrillator, which is the general name of shock devices. If there is no shock feature, only a pacemaker feature, these devices are only called CRTs. But the common feature is that both types have 3 electrodes or cables. Its main function is to complete the deficiency in the electrical system in some patients with heart failure and to increase the contractility of the heart a little.

All types of pacemakers can have an additional feature called “Rate Adaptive”. If this additional feature is available on the battery, the letter “-R” is added after the short battery codes mentioned above. For example, such batteries are defined as VVI-R or DDR-R. In fact, this additional feature is present in almost every pacemaker produced in recent years. This feature is primarily preferred by children or people with an active lifestyle. The reason for this is that pacemakers with this additional feature can quickly detect the instantaneous rate changes in the metabolism of the person and provide the pulse level needed by the current body more accurately and effectively.

Ankara Pacemaker Types and Their Prices

As we mentioned above, the structure and function of each pacemaker is different. What is mentioned here is about the characteristics of pacemakers. It is not related to the quality of pacemakers. For example, we told you about a car and its basic components, like engine, steering wheel, gear lever and hood etc. What determines the quality is the brand of that car. The same is true for pacemakers. It is the brand of the battery that determines the quality of the battery. There are two factors that determine the prices of pacemakers. The first factor is the type of pacemaker and the other factor is the brand of the pacemaker. Which type of pacemaker is required for which patient is decided after clinical examination. The choice of brand and quality of the battery is completely related to the preference of the patient. If you want to get more detailed information about the types of pacemakers and their prices, you can contact our clinic in Ankara.

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